‘More What You’d Call ‘Guidelines’ Than Actual Rules’ : Variation in the Use of Standards

The promise of XML was that it would enable seamless, automated interchange of content, using standard tools, technologies, and shared XML vocabularies. The experience of many cultural memory institutions, however, makes it clear that there are limits to the interoperability of even standards-compliant XML content. This paper explores some sources of and ameliorations to this variation in the use of standard XML vocabularies.