Levels of Open Access · nasa/Transform-to-Open-Science · Discussion #454 · GitHub

“There’s a lot of different terminology around open access, particularly around various levels of open access. I thought it might be helpful to aggregate some of the disparate information into one source on the TOPS Github, which is below! This is sourced from Open Book Publishers, Researcher.Life, and Taylor & Francis.There are many kinds of open access, but they broadly fit into three categories: libre, which is open access that allows content to be free to read and generally, there are no barriers for reuse, gratis, which is open access that allows content to be free to read, but has barriers for reuse, and then there’s one level (black) that fits into neither libre nor gratis….”

Zero Embargo | Clarke & Esposito

“A scenario that has been on the minds of publishers over the past decade (and incorporated into strategic planning scenarios by many publishers) is the possibility of “zero embargo.” In 2013, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) issued policy guidance to agencies in the form of the OSTP memorandum on “Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research” (the “2013 Memorandum,” also widely referred to as the “Holdren Memo” because it was issued by John Holdren, at the time the Director of OSTP). The Holdren Memo directed federal agencies in the US with annual research and development budgets of more than $100 million to develop access policies to ensure public access to federally funded research. While the Holdren Memo provided wide latitude to agencies on many of the specifics, the memo put forth a 12-month post-publication embargo period as a guideline. By “post-publication embargo period,” the Holdren Memo was referring to the period between publication of an article resulting from funded research in a journal and the freely accessible public release of that journal article in the form of either the author accepted manuscript (AAM) or the final published version of record (VOR). 

OSTP is an office of the White House and as such sets policy on behalf of the US President. The US federal agencies—including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Agriculture (USDA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and so on—are part of the Executive Branch and therefore under White House oversight. Any OSTP policy can be revised by a subsequent administration, and one possibility has always been that the 12-month post-publication embargo could be shortened, potentially to zero. Indeed, such a scenario almost occurred during the Trump administration when such a memorandum was drafted, though it was never ultimately issued.  

Rumors have been circulating for months that the Biden administration has been reviewing the Holdren Memo as part of a wider review of open science policy. Last week, Alondra Nelson (currently heading OSTP) issued a memorandum titled “Ensuring Free, Immediate, and Equitable Access to Federally Funded Research” (the “2022 Memorandum, or the “Nelson Memo”). The Nelson Memo is accompanied by an impact statement titled “Economic Landscape of Federal Public Access Policy” (the “2022 Impact Statement”), which was submitted to Congress pursuant to the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2022. The 2022 Memorandum directs federal agencies to develop policies that will require free public release of research articles upon publication, and that all supporting research data behind the articles be similarly made immediately and freely available.

The zero embargo scenario has arrived….”

How to search for images you can (legally) use for free – The Verge

“If you’re looking for an image that you can repurpose for one of your projects and aren’t able to take a photo yourself, there are a ton of free images you can use online without running into any copyright issues — you just have to know where to look.

Here, we’ll go over different places where you can search for free images on the web. It’s worth noting that when searching for free images, you’ll often come across the Creative Commons (CC) license that lets you use an image for free. But depending on the type of CC license an image has, there may be some limitations that require you to credit the original artist or prevent you from making modifications to the image….”

Toward a definition of digital object reuse | Emerald Insight

Abstract:  Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present conceptual definitions for digital object use and reuse. Typically, assessment of digital repository content struggles to go beyond traditional usage metrics such as clicks, views or downloads. This is problematic for galleries, libraries, archives, museums and repositories (GLAMR) practitioners because use assessment does not tell a nuanced story of how users engage with digital content and objects.


This paper reviews prior research and literature aimed at defining use and reuse of digital content in GLAMR contexts and builds off of this group’s previous research to devise a new model for defining use and reuse called the use-reuse matrix.


This paper presents the use-reuse matrix, which visually represents eight categories and numerous examples of use and reuse. Additionally, the paper explores the concept of “permeability” and its bearing on the matrix. It concludes with the next steps for future research and application in the development of the Digital Content Reuse Assessment Framework Toolkit (D-CRAFT).

Practical implications

The authors developed this model and definitions to inform D-CRAFT, an Institute of Museum and Library Services National Leadership Grant project. This toolkit is being developed to help practitioners assess reuse at their own institutions.


To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is one of the first to propose distinct definitions that describe and differentiate between digital object use and reuse in the context of assessing digital collections and data.

UiT’s Open Access policy

“At UiT The Arctic University of Norway, all academic publications shall be accessible in open access journals or open repositories.

The following applies to scientific work with a publication date of 1. January 2022 or later: Regardless of the publication channel, full-text copies of scientific articles written by employees and students at UiT shall be uploaded (deposited) in the national register (currently called Cristin).

If the article is published with open access with the publisher (gold open access), the publisher’s PDF (Published version, Version of Record) must be uploaded.
If the article is published in a closed channel (subscription journal) that does not allow self-archiving of the publisher’s PDF, the latest peer-reviewed manuscript version (accepted manuscript, Author’s Accepted Manuscript, postprint) must be uploaded.

All uploaded full-text copies will be made openly available in the institutional archive (currently called Munin). Authors who wish to make a reservation against making a full-text copy available in Munin can apply for an exemption. More information about this can be found under Self-archiving.

By not applying for an exemption, UiT’s employees and students give the institution permission to make full text copies available in the open institutional archive (currently called Munin) under a Creative Commons license, in line with prevailing international practice in gree Open Access infrastructure. Read more about the rules and procedures in Principles for open access to scientific publications at UiT Norway’s Arctic University….”

Emerald supplies accepted manuscripts to Publications Router – Research

“Emerald, the global publisher of social science research, is now supplying accepted manuscripts of journal articles to Jisc’s Publications Router service for onward distribution to UK institutional repositories….”

How to reuse & share your knowledge as you wish through Rights Retention – YouTube

“In 2020 cOAlition S released its Rights Retention Strategy (RRS) with the dual purpose of enabling authors to retain rights that automatically belong to the author, and to enable compliance with their funders’ Open Access policy via dissemination in a repository.

This video explains briefly the steps a researcher has to follow to retain their intellectual property rights….”

New open access policy within Utrecht University | News @ Utrecht University

Utrecht University aims at a publishing climate in which academic authors publish fully open access (OA). The Executive Board of Utrecht University has agreed to a new OA policy to realise this ambition.


Licensing Specialist

“The Library of the University of California, Berkeley (Library) seeks a creative, collaborative, and diligent individual to improve the Library’s electronic resource licensing terms and management to maximize their benefit for campus scholarship, teaching, and research. Working closely under the supervision of the Office of Scholarly Communication Services (OSCS), and collaborating with Acquisitions and the Electronic Resources Unit, the Licensing Specialist: (1) strategically analyzes and revises licensing terms and practices for the Library’s electronic resources, and (2) develops protocols and guidance for implementing a license tracking management and renewal system within the Alma resource management platform.


Develop model license language and definitions.
Ensure model licensing terms align with current academic licensing standards, including as to issues such as text and data mining, non-disclosure, accessibility, electronic course usage, and more.
Develop licensing terms checklist and negotiation guidance.
Confer with publishers and eResources vendors as needed to establish viable licensing terms.


Analyze licensing renewal and renegotiation processes, and recommend and implement new practices to optimize program.
Assess processes and develop guidelines to ensure consistency of licensing terms across license portfolios.
Identify processes for managing incoming and currently-negotiated licenses.
Develop guidelines and implementation plan for license tracking and management system within Alma.
Coordinate with other UC campuses and the California Digital Library as needed to improve and synthesize resource licensing terms.


Based on analysis conducted and recommendations developed, prepare guidance and documentation to support selectors and librarians engaging in license negotiations.
Document methodology for maintenance and enhancement of license tracking and management system….”

OER and CC license references on Wikipedia: We need your help!

“Hosting over 1.7 billion visitors, more than fifty-eight million articles in more than 300 languages, Wikipedia is the world’s largest reference site. Misinformation on Wikipedia can cause rippling damage across countless communities. As open education advocates, we need to ensure the foundational information about OER and CC licenses is accurate. This is not just a matter of correcting critical information in the present, but also protecting the future of our movement. We must ensure learners, educators, policy makers and advocates have accurate information at the core of their open education work.

This is a call to action! Join us for an introductory conversation with Wikimedia’s Douglas Ian Scott and learn how to edit Wikipedia–then put it to practice! We will host a follow-up community conversation and edit-a-thon on Wikipedia to update references to OER and CC licenses–and need your help.”

23 Scholarly Communication Things | QUT Library

23 Scholarly Communication Things by Queensland University of Technology is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.



I. Foundations of Scholarly Communication

Research Integrity

Jennifer Hall; Eileen Salisbury; and Catherine Radbourne

Copyright and Creative Commons

Katya Henry; Rani McLennan; and David Cohen

Author Profiles

Paula Callan; Tanya Harden; and Brendan Sinnamon

II. Research Data Management

Managing research data

Philippa Frame

Publishing research data

Philippa Frame and Stephanie Jacobs

Licensing research data

Philippa Frame and Stephanie Jacobs

III. Open Access

Open Access organisations and developments – National and international

Sandra Fry

Open Access Models

Ginny Barbour; Paula Callan; and Stephanie Jacobs

Open Research

Alice Steiner

Open Educational Resources (OERs)

Katya Henry; Kate Nixon; and Sarah Howard

IV. Publishing

Which journal or book publisher to publish with

Paula Callan and Catherine Radbourne

Avoiding deceptive and vanity journals/conferences

Stephanie Jacobs; Catherine Radbourne; and Ginny Barbour

1. Persistent identifiers (PIDs)

Stephanie Jacobs; Paula Callan; Tanya Harden; and Brendan Sinnamon

Preprints, Preprint servers and Overlay journals

Ginny Barbour; Stephanie Jacobs; and Catherine Radbourne

Promoting research

Kate Harbison; Paula Callan; and Tanya Harden

V. Publication Metrics

Responsible use of metrics

Catherine Radbourne and Tanya Harden

Citation counts, author level metrics and journal rankings

Alice Steiner and Tanya Harden

Databases for metrics

Catherine Radbourne

Enabling Open Access through clarity and transparency: a request to publishers


cOAlition S is delighted to see many publishers making moves to increase Open Access (OA) for research publications. However, some publishers’ practices still cause difficulties for authors who wish to exercise their right to make their Author Accepted Manuscript (AAM) open access immediately on publication using the Plan S Rights Retention Strategy.

To address this issue, cOAlition S requests that publishers make their policies and contracts more transparent at the outset of the submission process. The request outlined in the letter that was sent today to a large number of publishers is intended to make publisher submission workflows and processes as clear and straightforward as possible for authors and to help them meet their pre-existing grant conditions.


What’s Next for CC Licenses

In this 20th anniversary year of the CC license suite, we are pleased to be renewing our commitment to license stewardship. Creative Commons has always taken its stewardship responsibilities seriously, engaging in multi-year consultation processes for versioning the tools, publishing official translations of the licenses into dozens of languages, and working to educate people about … Read More “What’s Next for CC Licenses”
The post What’s Next for CC Licenses appeared first on Creative Commons.