Canada Steals Cultural Works From The Public By Extending Copyright Terms

We’ve said this before and we’ll say it again: it cannot make sense to extend copyright terms retroactively. The entire point of copyright law is to provide a limited monopoly on making copies of the work as an incentive to get the work produced. Assuming the work was produced, that says that the bargain that was struck was clearly enough of an incentive for the creator. They were told they’d receive that period of exclusivity and thus they created the work.

Going back and retroactively extending copyright then serves no purpose. Creators need no incentive for works already created. The only thing it does is steal from the public. That’s because the “deal” setup by governments creating copyright terms is between the public (who is temporarily stripped of their right to share knowledge freely) and the creator. But if we extend copyright term retroactively, the public then has their end of the bargain (“you will be free to share these works freely after such-and-such a date”) changed, with no recourse or compensation.

That makes no sense.

And yet, countries keep doing it.

Canada has quietly done it: extending copyrights on literary, dramatic or musical works and engravings from life of the author plus 50 years year to life of the author plus 70 years.

Quietly on November 17, 2022, and appearing online this morning, an Order in Council was issued on behalf of Her Excellency the Governor General, on the recommendation of the Minister of Industry and the Minister of Canadian Heritage to fix December 30, 2022 as the day Bill C-19, Division 16 of Part 5 comes into force. What does this all mean? With the passing of Bill C-19 this past June, the Copyright Act was amended to extend the term of copyright for literary, dramatic or musical works and engravings to life of the author plus a period of 70 years following the end of the calendar year in which that author dies. What was unclear at the time of royal assent was WHEN exactly this would come into force — if on or after January 1, 2023, one more year of works would enter the public domain. Unfortunately, we now know that this date has been fixed as December 30, 2022, meaning that no new works will enter the Canadian public domain for the next 20 years.

This should be a huge scandal. The public has been stripped of its rights to share information for twenty years. Based on what? Literally nothing, but demands from heirs of deceased authors to continue to receive subsidies from the very public they just stripped the rights from.

It is beyond ridiculous that any country in the world is extending copyright in this day and age, rather than decreasing it.

UBC Library digitizes William Shakespeare’s First Folio – About UBC Library

“UBC Library has made its first edition of William Shakespeare’s Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies openly accessible to the public by publishing a digitized version of the volume online through Open Collections. The process to digitize the First Folio took more than a year to facilitate due to the Folio’s age and fragility….”

University of Alberta OER Cookbook wins Gourmand Award! — news.library.ualberta.ca

“The Gourmand Awards, often compared to the ‘Oscars’ for the culinary industry, honours the world’s best food and wine books, print and digital, and food television. This year, a Canadian book titled, The High Protein Cookbook for Muscle Health During Cancer Treatment by Hillary Wilson, Anissa Armet, and Professor Carla Prado has won the Gourmand World Cookbook Awards 2022 for the University Press – Free PDF category. …”

Tectonic shifts in academic publishing – McGill Reporter

“McGill Library’s support for a new seismology journal is just one example of how the Library is helping researchers challenge the status quo in academic publishing…

Seismica, which charges neither subscription fees for readers, nor publication fees for authors, is a landmark in Rowe’s move away from the world of for-profit academic publishing. After more than 10 years serving on the editorial boards of several journals in her field, she says she decided to cut ties with big publishers. A watershed moment came in 2020 when the Nature Publishing Group (NPG) announced an author fee of €10,000 for each paper published in one of its ‘open access’ journals. At a time when government funding agencies are increasingly requiring researchers to publish their work in open access journals as a condition of their grants, moves like this are seen by some as a strategy on the part of commercial publishers to shore up their revenue base by shifting fees from subscribers to authors.

According to Rowe, however, researchers themselves are partly to blame for feeding a cycle of high fees and perceived status in academic publishing. “The only reason authors would pay [these fees] is for the prestige – and potential career benefits – of publishing in Nature,” she says. “In other words, we academics have created an expensive spiral of prestige and power – which we ourselves enforce on one another – which drives the flow of grant money toward these publishing companies.” …”

Investigating Open Access Publishing Practices of Early and Mid?Career Researchers in Humanities and Social Sciences Disciplines – Ayeni – 2022 – Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology – Wiley Online Library

Abstract:  Although open access (OA) to research outputs has been proven to improve research readership, citation, and impact, the uptake of OA in some disciplines has remained low. In this paper, we investigated and compared OA publishing practices of early career and mid-career researchers in the Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (HASS) disciplines in Canada. The descriptive survey design with the use of online questionnaire was employed. Participants were drawn from a group of 15 public research universities via their openly available emails on university websites. Survey data was analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings show that in the last three years, 74.1% of mid-career researchers have published in OA journals, compared to 63.1% of early career researchers. However, OA publishing of monographs (21.3%) and conference proceedings (29.9%), as well as the frequency and extent OA publishing remains low among all participants. ANOVA results (F [2, 218] = 3.683, p = .027, ?2 = .033) showed that 3.3% of the variance in researchers’ OA publishing frequency can be attributed to their disciplines. Overall, OA publishing among researchers in the HASS disciplines is still low. Hence, there is a need to identify factors that facilitate or hinder HASS researchers’ OA publishing.

 

Announcing the Canadian Community Development Working Group! | Library Publishing Coalition | October 6, 2022

“The Library Publishing Coalition is pleased to announce the formation of a Canadian Community Development Working Group. Initiated by Canadian LPC members, this 6-month working group will engage Canadian scholarly communications stakeholders to explore  strategies for developing a stronger Canadian library publisher community. This new group provides an opportunity for Canadian library publishers to grow and develop according to their unique national context. …”

Tectonic shifts in academic publishing – McGill Reporter

“Seismica, which charges neither subscription fees for readers, nor publication fees for authors, is a landmark in Rowe’s move away from the world of for-profit academic publishing. After more than 10 years serving on the editorial boards of several journals in her field, she says she decided to cut ties with big publishers. A watershed moment came in 2020 when the Nature Publishing Group (NPG) announced an author fee of €10,000 for each paper published in one of its ‘open access’ journals. At a time when government funding agencies are increasingly requiring researchers to publish their work in open access journals as a condition of their grants, moves like this are seen by some as a strategy on the part of commercial publishers to shore up their revenue base by shifting fees from subscribers to authors.

According to Rowe, however, researchers themselves are partly to blame for feeding a cycle of high fees and perceived status in academic publishing. “The only reason authors would pay [these fees] is for the prestige – and potential career benefits – of publishing in Nature,” she says. “In other words, we academics have created an expensive spiral of prestige and power – which we ourselves enforce on one another – which drives the flow of grant money toward these publishing companies.” …

It was NPG’s “obscene increase” in author fees, says Rowe, that helped spur a loose consortium of researchers to start a journal of their own. With advice from the editors of Volcanica, a similar journal that had launched a year earlier, Rowe and seven of her colleagues spent the best part of 2021 laying the groundwork for Seismica, which opened for submissions in July 2022. …”

Sudbury News: Laurentian University receives more than $225,000 to support the humanities | CTV News | Oct. 13, 2022

“Laurentian University researchers have received funding in excess of $237,000 from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) through its Insight Program. The Insight, Insight Development and Aid to Scholarly Journals grants were awarded to LU’s School of Social Work, School of Liberal Arts as well as the McEwen School of Architecture….Aid to Scholarly Journal grants support Canadian scholarly dissemination by enabling journals to explore innovative activities as well as helping them cover the costs associated with publishing scholarly articles and journal distribution on Canadian not-for-profit platforms. “Insight, Insight Development and Aid to Scholarly Journals grants are critically important for researchers and the training of students that often work side by side with faculty to advance scholarship and knowledge dissemination,” Doctor Tammy Eger, vice-president of research at the university, said in a media release Thursday. “These investments from the federal government ensure that researchers are able to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in fields of social sciences and humanities.”…”

Factors influencing Canadian HASS researchers’ open access publishing practices: Implication for the future of scholarly communication | Proceedings of the Annual Conference of CAIS / Actes du congrès annuel de l’ACSI

Despite increasing awareness and support for open access (OA) publishing, and the advantages of doing so, there is still a low uptake of OA in some disciplines. We surveyed 228 early and mid-career researchers from 15 public universities in Canada. The Social Exchange Theory provided a theoretical foundation that informed factors investigated in this study. Correlation and regression analyses were used to test research hypotheses, while one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to test level of effect sizes within subjects. Findings show that altruism (r =.352, ? = .331) influenced researchers’ OA publishing practices whereas visibility and prestige do not, even though they are positively correlated. Furthermore, ANOVA results showed that researchers’ career stages have significant effect on their OA publishing practices as mid-career researchers published more in OA outlets. Therefore, building structures and policies that spur researchers’ altruism towards publishing OA should be a continuous and future approach to achieving the ideals of OA in Canada.

$10M to support open-access and open-source research | UdeMNouvelles

“By awarding a $10-million grant to Coalition Publica through the Major Science Initiatives Fund 2023-2029, the Canada Foundation for Innovation is helping to address the ongoing need to operate and maintain research facilities of national importance, enabling Canadian researchers to undertake activities that rival those of their international colleagues.

Coalition Publica is developing an open, non-commercial infrastructure for digital research, dissemination and scholarly publication in the humanities and social sciences. The infrastructure is based on the complementarity of two leading technology solutions dedicated to open access and open science.

The first of those solutions is the erudit.org dissemination platform of the Érudit Consortium of Université de Montréal (UdeM), Université Laval and Université du à Montréal, while the second is the Open Journal Systems editing and publishing software developed by the Public Knowledge Project at Simon Fraser University….”

Canada Foundation for Innovation renews its support for Coalition Publica | 19 August 2022

“Coalition Publica will strengthen its digital services to the Canadian and international scholarly community with continued investment from CFI. The Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) is awarding a $10 million grant to Coalition Publica under the Major Science Initiatives Fund 2023-2029. Through this program, CFI contributes to the ongoing operation and maintenance needs of research facilities of national importance in order to enable Canadian researchers to undertake world-class research. Coalition Publica is developing an open, non-commercial infrastructure for digital research, dissemination, and scholarly publishing. It is based on the complementarity between the publishing software Open Journal Systems, developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Simon Fraser University (SFU)), and the erudit.org dissemination platform of the Érudit Consortium (Université de Montréal, Université Laval, Université du Québec à Montréal), two leading technological solutions dedicated to open access and open science. In collaboration with the editorial teams of more than 250 scholarly and cultural journals, Coalition Publica also offers access to the largest corpus of Canadian research results in the humanities and social sciences. More than 220,000 publications are available, and 8,000 new articles are disseminated each year. Rich and diverse, the collections are representative of Canadian and international research and creation: archaeology, economics, history, literary studies, psychology, education… They are consulted each year by nearly 6 million users worldwide….”

Research assessment reform in action: Updates from research funders in Canada and New Zealand | DORA

“Research funding organizations are often thought of as leaders in the movement toward more responsible research evaluation practices. Often, the perception of “excellence” in research culture is filtered through the lens of who and what type of work receives funding. However, when a narrow set of indicators is used to determine who receives funding, the result can be a subsequent narrowing of academia’s perceptions of research excellence (e.g., journal impact factor (JIF), h-index). This places funders in the unique position of being able to help “set the tone” for research culture through their own efforts to reduce reliance on flawed proxy measures of quality and implement a more holistic approach to the evaluation of researchers for funding opportunities. Whether funders are seeking inspiration from their peers or insight on iterative policy development, the ability to come together to discuss reform activity is critical for achieving widespread culture change. At DORA’s June Funder Community of Practice (CoP) meetings, we heard how DORA is being implemented by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE)….”

Embracing the value of research data: introducing the JCHLA/JABSC Data Sharing Policy | Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association / Journal de l’Association des bibliothèques de la santé du Canada

Abstract:  As health sciences researchers have been asked to share their data more frequently due to funder policies, journal requirements, or interest from their peers, health sciences librarians (HSLs) have simultaneously begun to provide support to researchers in this space through training, participating in RDM efforts on research grants, and developing comprehensive data services programs. If supporting researchers’ data sharing efforts is a worthwhile investment for HSLs, it is crucial that we practice data sharing in our own research endeavours. sharing data is a positive step in the right direction, as it can increase the transparency, reliability, and reusability of HSL-related research outputs. Furthermore, having the ability to identify and connect with researchers in relation to the challenges associated with data sharing can help HSLs empathize with their communities and gain new perspectives on improving support in this area. To that end, the Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association / Journal de l’Association des bibliothèques de la santé du Canada (JCHLA / JABSC) has developed a Data Sharing Policy to improve the transparency and reusability of research data underlying the results of its publications. This paper will describe the approach taken to inform and develop this policy. 

 

The oligopoly’s shift to open access publishing: How for-profit publishers benefit from gold and hybrid article processing charges | Proceedings of the Annual Conference of CAIS / Actes du congrès annuel de l’ACSI

Abstract:  This study estimates fees paid for gold and hybrid open access articles in journals published by the oligopoly of academic publishers, which acknowledge funding from the Canadian Tri-Agency. It employs bibliometric methods using data from Web of Science, Unpaywall, open datasets of article processing charges list prices as well as historical fees retrieved via the Internet Archive Wayback Machine for journals published by Elsevier, Springer-Nature, Wiley, Sage and Taylor & Francis to estimate article processing charges for open access articles published between 2015 and 2018 that acknowledge funding from the Canadian Federal funding agencies CIHR, NSERC, and SSHRC, as well as grants jointly administered by the Tri-Agency. During the four-year period analyzed, a total of 6,892 gold and 4,097 hybrid articles that acknowledge Tri-Agency funding were identified, for which the total list prices amount to $US 27.6 million.

 

The Open Science Dialogues: Summary of stakeholders round tables – Science.gc.ca

“Open Science Footnote1 (also known as open scholarship) is the practice of making scientific inputs, outputs and processes freely available to all with minimal restrictions. The benefits of Open Science include increasing access to knowledge, improving reproducibility, reducing duplication, creating opportunities for impact, and accelerating knowledge transfer. Open Science was recognized as a commitment in Canada’s Action Plan on Open Government in 2016. The following year, the position of the Chief Science Advisor of Canada was created with the mandate to “provide advice on the development and implementation of guidelines to ensure that government science is fully available to the public.” As part of the 2018-2020 Action Plan on Open Government, Canada has committed to creating a Roadmap for Open Science. The Roadmap was released in February 2020 by the Chief Science Advisor of Canada and the Honourable Navdeep Bains, former Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development. It articulates a vision, principles and recommendations to make government science fully available to the public. The Office of the Chief Science Advisor (OCSA) has advanced the file across government agencies and science-based departments who have since developed Open Science Action Plans. Among other recommendations, the Roadmap articulates the need for a cohesive Open Science approach for federally-funded Canadian science and suggested consultations with university researchers to be the first step in this process (Recommendation 9). Such consultation was conducted in November 2021 and is the main focus of this document.

Given the complementarity between Open Science and research security, Dr Nipun Vats, Assistant Deputy Minister at Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada, provided short remarks on research security as part of the discussion on open data during the roundtables with researchers….”