Should open access lead to closed research? The trends towards paying to perform research

Abstract:  Open  Access  (OA)  emerged  as  an  important  transition  in  scholarly  publishing  worldwide during the past two decades. So far, this transition is increasingly based on article processing charges (APC), which create a new paywall on the researchers’ side. Publishing is part of the research  process  and  thereby  necessary  to  perform  research.  This  study  analyses  the  global trends towards paying to perform research by combing observed trends in publishing from 2015 to 2020 with an APC price list. APC expenses have sharply increased among six countries with different  OA  policies:  the  USA,  China,  the  UK,  France,  the  Netherlands,  and  Norway.  The estimated global revenues from APC among major publishers now exceed 2 billion US dollars annually. Mergers and takeovers show that the industry is moving towards APC-based OA as the more profitable business  model.  Research publishing will be closed  to  those who cannot make an institution or project money payment. Our results lead to a discussion of whether APC is the best way to promote OA.

OE Global Conference 2021-2022 – Global Congress for Implementation of UNESCO OER Recommendation

“The Open Education Global 2021& 2022 conference series is co-hosted by Open Education Global and the Université de Nantes. Both events are entirely focused on presenting existing solutions and practices that inform and guide the implementation of the UNESCO OER Recommendation. The Open Education Global in-person congress will take place from May 23–25, 2022 in Nantes, France.

For over 10 years, the Open Education Global annual conference has been the main annual event for open education practitioners, policy builders, and decision-makers. Supporters, advocates, and students from around the world explore the OEGlobal opportunity to share, collaborate, learn, network, and celebrate each other’s work and benefit through a broad, dynamic, and innovative collective vision of Open Education.”

Wiley and French Consortium COUPERIN Sign Open Access Agreement


Global research and education leader Wiley today announced a new three-year agreement with COUPERIN, a consortium of higher education and research institutions in France.

This agreement is the first of its size signed by COUPERIN. Researchers from 130 member institutions across France will be granted access to all of Wiley’s hybrid and subscription journals and will be able to publish accepted articles open access in all of Wiley’s 1,400 hybrid journals. Under the terms of the agreement, individual institutions may additionally offer open access publishing in fully gold journals to their authors.

Extending the open monitoring of open science – Archive ouverte HAL

Abstract:  Abstract : We present a new Open Science Monitor framework at the country level for the case of France. We propose a fine-grained monitoring of the dynamics of the open access to publications, based on historical data from Unpaywall, and thus limited to Crossref-DOI documents. The economic models of journals publishing French publications are analyéed as well as the open access dynamics by discipline and open access route (publishers and repositories). The French Open Science Monitor (BSO) website: presents the results to date (last observation date December 2021). 62% of the 170,000 French 2020 publications are available in December 2021. This rate has increased by 10 points in one year. The level of open access varies significantly from one discipline to another. Some disciplines, such as the physical sciences and mathematics, have long been committed to opening up their publications, while others, such as chemistry, are rapidly catching up. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis and the urgent need to open up scholarly outputs in the health field, a specific version of the French Open Science Monitor has been built: It monitors the open access dynamics of French publications in the biomedical field. It also analyses the transparency of the results of clinical trials and observational studies conducted in France. Only 57% of clinical trials completed in the last 10 years have shared their results publicly. In contrast to other Open Science Monitoring initiatives, the source code and the data of the French Open Science Monitor are shared with an open licence. The source code used for the French Open Science Monitor is available on GitHub, and shared with an open licence. The code is split in modules, in particular for indicators computations and and the web user interface The data resulting of this work is shared on the French Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation open data portal: and The originality of the French Open Science Monitor also lies in the fact that it can easily be adapted to the level of an higher education and research institution. To date, some twenty higher education and research institutions have already used it to obtain reliable and open indicators on the progress of open science in their scientific production.


The CNRS encourages its scientists to no longer pay to be published | CNRS

As part of the CNRS open science policy, scientific articles must be available in open access. The CNRS encourages its researchers to turn to free publication models for both authors and readers. Deputy Director General for Science, Alain Schuhl details these recommendations.


France’s Scientific Publishers Back an ‘Open Science’ Report


The scientific and academic publishers of the Syndicat national de l’édition (SNE-France) and the Fédération Nationale de la Presse Spécialisée (FNPS) today (April 8) have welcomed the findings and recommendations of a report on open science.


The study was made by a parliamentary office for scientific evaluation, and its findings were first made in preliminary form on March 11.

These two reports recognize the essential role of private and public scientific publishers in publication and distribution of research results. They recommend a balanced approach to French open-science policy that guarantees pluralism and diversity, “respects the prerogatives of parliament,” and preserves the fundamental legal bases of copyright and academic freedom.


DOAJ receives funding from the French National Fund for Open Science | April 2022

DOAJ is pleased to announce that it will be receiving €70,000 EUR in funding from the French National Fund for Open Science. The decision to allocate the funds was taken by the Steering Committee for Open Science who recognized the strategic role that DOAJ plays in promoting and vetting high-quality open access journals. 

France rules Google Analytics non-compliant with GDPR | Matomo

The French Data Protection Agency, CNIL (Commission nationale de l’informatique et des libertés), has concluded that the use of Google Analytics is illegal under GDPR. The CNIL has begun issuing formal notices to website managers using Google Analytics.

Ouvrir la Science – Remise des prix science ouverte du logiciel libre de la recherche

From Google’s English:  “For the first year, the Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation is awarding the Open Science Prizes for Free Research Software. Ten software developed by French teams are rewarded for their contribution to the advancement of scientific knowledge.

As part of the second National Plan for Open Science, the open science prizes for free research software highlight projects and research teams working on the development and dissemination of free software and contributing to the construction of a common good of prime importance. Their objective is to recognize the important contribution made by the production of free software and to draw the attention of the scientific community to exceptional or very promising achievements, which can serve as a model for the next generations of researchers and engineers. The prizes were awarded on the decision of a jury of experts chaired by Daniel Le Berre (Lens Computer Science Research Center, University of Artois-CNRS)….”

Espace Presse – Le CEA publie son baromètre science ouverte 2021

For the first time, in 2022, the Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation (MESRI) is offering institutions the version of the French open science barometer adapted to their scholarly publications. The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) publishes the most significant results of its 2021 open science barometer
According to the CEA’s 2021 open science barometer, 80% of the CEA’s 5,375 scientific publications in 2020 are available in open access.

Identify scientific publications country-wide and measure their open access: The case of the French Open Science Barometer (BSO)

We use several sources to collect and evaluate academic scientific publication on a country scale, and we apply it to the case of France for the years 2015–2020, while presenting a more detailed analysis focused on the reference year 2019. These sources are diverse: databases available by subscription (Scopus, Web of Science) or open to the scientific community (Microsoft Academic Graph), the national open archive HAL, and databases serving thematic communities (ADS and PUBMED). We show the contribution of the different sources to the final corpus. These results are then compared to those obtained with another approach, that of the French Open Science Barometer (Jeangirard, 2019) for monitoring open access at the national level. We show that both approaches provide a convergent estimate of the open access rate. We also present and discuss the definitions of the concepts used, and list the main difficulties encountered in processing the data. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the respective contributions of the main databases and their complementarity in the broad framework of a country-wide corpus. They also shed light on the calculation of open access rates and thus contribute to a better understanding of current developments in the field of open science.

France: Top institutions start uploading missing clinical trial results

“Several leading French clinical trial sponsors are now uploading missing results onto the European trial registry. France is finally starting to catch up with other European countries in terms of clinical trial transparency.



Eight major French non-profit research institutions uploaded 27 additional results for drug trials between February and November 2021. …”

Recherches participatives, open innovation et science ouverte : qualité des données

The “Research Data College” of the Open Science Committee (CoSO) is carrying out a survey on the practices relating to the production or use of open data in the context of participatory research, open innovation and open science, in particular the quality of data and metadata in this process.

Paris Open Science European Conference (OSEC), Feb 04-05, 2022 @ the French Academy of Sciences, Paris, France | French presidency of the European Council

rance is organising a major international event in the context of the French Presidency of the European Union:

Paris Open Science European Conference (OSEC)
On Friday 4th and Saturday 5th February 2022
at the French Academy of Sciences, Paris, France

This international conference is being organised with the strong support of the Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation, the French Academy of Sciences, the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), the National Institute of Health and Medical Research (Inserm), the High Council for Evaluation of Research and Higher Education (Hcéres), the National Research Agency (ANR), the University of Lorraine and the University of Nantes.

The main topics addressed during this conference come within the framework of the transformation of the research and innovation ecosystem in Europe. Particular attention will be given to transparency in health research, the necessary transformation of research evaluations, the future of scientific publishing, and the opening of codes and software produced in a scientific context..

Roselyne Bachelot-Narquin, ministre de la Culture, et Frédérique Vidal, ministre de l’Enseignement supérieur, de la Recherche et de l’Innovation, annoncent la création d’un Observatoire de l’édition scientifique |

The Scholarly Publishing Observatory is a forum for consultation and dialogue among various actors in scholarly publishing and private, public and research sectors.

The Observatory will strive to ensure sustainability of a diverse ecosystem of journals and publications, ensuring wide dissemination of research results. To this end, it will conduct studies and collect data to get a better understanding of scholarly journals and books and to address the challenges of open science. Based on these studies, it will be able to make recommendations to political authorities, to channel support to scholarly publishing and to answer questions about it. The Observatory is independent from the Open Science Committee, but can collaborate with it as much as necessary.