“(12) It is the objective of Directive (EU) 2019/1024 to promote the use of standard public licences available online for re-using public sector information. The Commission’s Guidelines on recommended standard licences, datasets and charging for the re-use of documents (5) identify Creative Commons (‘CC’) licences as an example of recommended standard public licences. CC licences are developed by a non-profit organisation and have become a leading licensing solution for public sector information, research results and cultural domain material across the world. It is therefore necessary to refer in this Implementing Regulation to the most recent version of the CC licence suite, namely CC 4.0. A licence equivalent to the CC licence suite may include additional arrangements, such as the obligation on the re-user to include updates provided by the data holder and to specify when the data were last updated, as long as they do not restrict the possibilities for re-using the data….”
“The charts show numbers of articles published in fully OA journals (left), and OA articles in hybrid journals (right), color-coded by license type. The most permissive licenses are at the bottom (CC BY), through to least permissive at the top, except for the tiny amount of CC0.
The volume of publications from OASPA continues to grow. Just under 4M articles were published by members in the period 2000-2021.
Just under 1M of the cumulative total were published in 2021, representing a growth of around 46% over the previous year and around one quarter of total recorded output.
The total number of articles reported by members has more than doubled since 2018, and grown around 20x over the last decade.
Publications in fully OA journals continue to dominate output, at around 4x that in hybrid.
CC BY licenses (Creative Commons attribution only) dominate. They account for almost three quarters of members’ total output, and for 81% of their output in fully OA journals….”
“I have had people tell me with doctrinal certainty that Creative Commons licenses allow text and data mining, and insofar as license terms are observed, I agree. The making of copies to perform text and data mining, machine learning, and AI training (collectively “TDM”) without additional licensing is authorized for commercial and non-commercial purposes under CC BY, and for non-commercial purposes under CC BY-NC. (Full disclosure: CCC offers RightFind XML, a service that supports licensed commercial access to full-text articles for TDM with value-added capabilities.)
I have long wondered, however, about the interplay between the attribution requirement (i.e., the “BY” in CC BY) and TDM. After all, the bargain with those licenses is that the author allows reuse, typically at no cost, but requires attribution. Attribution under the CC licenses may be the author’s primary benefit and motivation, as few authors would agree to offer the licenses without credit.
In the TDM context, this raises interesting questions:
Does the attribution requirement mean that the author’s information may not be removed as a data element from the content, even if inclusion might frustrate the TDM exercise or introduce noise into the system?
Does the attribution need to be included in the data set at every stage?
Does the result of the mining need to include attribution, even if hundreds of thousands of CC BY works were mined and the output does not include content from individual works?
While these questions may have once seemed theoretical, that is no longer the case. An analogous situation involving open software licenses (GNU and the like) is now being litigated….”
Abstract: The present study aims to investigate the trend and growth of Open Access (OA) journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) portal. The authors found that there are 17,379 indexed journals in 80 languages from 130 countries covering all fields of science, technology, medicine, social sciences, arts, and humanities. The study presents findings on the contribution to DOAJ by subjects, country, DOAJ seal, article processing charges (APC), and author publishing rights. The study found that medicine journals were highest in this portal and the majority of contributions came from Indonesia. It was also found that the majority of the journals allow the author to hold publishing rights and only 8% of OA journals received the DOAJ seal. The maximum numbers of OA journals have Creative Commons Attribution licences and the highest APC is Rs. 3,97,985. DOAJ is the main source of information in facilitating organized access to OA literature. It is recommended to raise a DOAJ special seal for practicing extra high-level commitment to OA publications.
“Creative Commons (CC) is a global nonprofit organization working to solve the world’s most pressing problems by opening up knowledge and culture about them. Climate change, and the resulting harm to our global biodiversity, has been one of the world’s most pressing problems for decades. Climate data needs to be open, accessible and easy to share to ensure scientists, researchers, policymakers, educators, civil society organizations, advocates, citizens, journalists, and others can find it, read it, and build on it.
Last Friday (16 December 2022), Creative Commons proudly celebrated twenty years of CC licensing and all the groundbreaking collaboration it has enabled. As we look back on this remarkable journey, time seems to pass more quickly than ever — yet our gratitude for each milestone remains unwavering, as do words of thanks towards everyone who … Read More “CC at 20: CEO Catherine Stihler Reflects on 2022 and Where CC Is Headed Next”
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“Twenty Years of Creative Commons (in Sixty Seconds)” by Ryan Junell and Glenn Otis Brown for Creative Commons is licensed via CC BY 4.0 …”
From Google’s English: “As part of its I-FAIR IR project, winner of the first FNSO call for projects, OpenEdition has implemented a licensing policy by default for its four platforms and all their metadata, and offers recommendations and licensing options on the platforms. This policy will be rolled out in the coming months….
OpenEdition’s licensing policy has several objectives:
clarify the status of published documents and metadata;
inform the community of the conditions of use of the content;
encourage the reuse of content;
provide journals and publishers with the means to publish content that complies with Plan S obligations and funding contracts.
The version of the licenses that was chosen is 4.0, the most recent and the most relevant for its international scope….”
“I am often asked to advise on licensing, sometimes by editors who are moving a journal to open access or by authors faced with a licence choice in the process of submitting an article. For many, the more traditional “all rights reserved” approach is simpler, a warm blanket of familiarity. So, while these days people recognise that allowing others to access and reuse their work is beneficial, amid all the legalese and myths about OA, they feel unsure about throwing off the blanket just yet.
Here are a few pointers about open licences. There are other open licences around but I will stick to Creative Commons (CC), as these are by far the most prevalent in academic publishing.
CC licences preserve your right to object to misuse of your work.
A typical concern about open licences is “improper” use of a work, such as misattribution, false claims of authorship or what we call “derogatory treatment” of a work, that is, where the reputation or integrity of the work or author is harmed. However, here there is no difference between all rights reserved and open licences. Moral rights are always retained with any CC licence, which means misattribution or derogatory use of your work can be handled the same way with open or closed rights. Correct attribution is a legal requirement under any variety of CC licence just as it is with all rights reserved. Nor can someone reusing your work imply any sort of endorsement from you….”
“Creative Commons licenses are copyright licenses that enable free distribution of copyrighted works and permit licensees to modify and build upon the works depending on license. The licenses are also the most used licenses on research outputs such as articles and datasets.
This webinar will give an introduction to the Creative Commons licenses and how they are used within Open Access publishing.
The webinar will focus on:
The anatomy and features of the Creative Commons licenses.
The Journals’ use of Creative Commons licenses.
The Funders’ requirements to use Creative Commons licenses.
How Copenhagen University Library supports researchers in the usage of Creative Commons licenses. …”
Yesterday, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) filed a motion for summary judgment calling to reject the lawsuit against the Internet Archive (IA) brought by four big publishers that threatens IA’s controlled digital lending (CDL) program. Creative Commons fully supports this motion. Here’s why.
The Internet Archive is an American non-profit library preserving and giving access to millions of free books, movies, software, music, websites, and more, with the mission to provide “universal access to all knowledge.”
As we mention in our Open Culture Policy Paper, with CDL, libraries can lend one copy of digitized material from their collection to one borrower at a time, for two weeks or less, just like they would a physical book. Unlike eLending, CDL is about digitized works, not born-digital material. CDL maximizes a library’s ability to loan works, thereby making the entire lending system more efficient and equitable.
At CC, we believe libraries — and cultural heritage institutions in general — should be empowered to serve as a meaningful access point for publicly funded collections. Free and open access to knowledge stimulates creativity, is essential for research and learning, and constitutes a bedrock principle of free and democratic societies.
Copyright must encourage CDL and ensure that legal mechanisms are in place to allow this fair practice. As clearly articulated by EFF: “CDL helps ensure that the public can make full use of the books that libraries have bought and paid for. This activity is fundamentally the same as traditional library lending, and poses no new harm to authors or the publishing industry.”
Books, in all their forms, are a public good. Libraries, whether brick-and-mortar or digital, pursue a public-interest mission. Guided by our strong belief in better sharing, CC will continue to support the IA’s crucial efforts to ensure the public can access knowledge and culture on a global level.
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“Welcome back to the Tech Policy Grind Podcast by the Internet Law and Policy Foundry. In this episode, Class 4 Fellow Emine Ozge Yildirim interviews Catherine Stihler, the CEO of Creative Commons.
We dive deep into the evolution of Creative Commons over 20 years, CC’s role as an organization, and the how and why of its mission to facilitate better sharing online. Further, we hear from Catherine on CC’s 20th year anniversary and what direction the organization is moving towards under her leadership. So, tune in for this discussion on some of the crucial yet controversial questions surrounding the open knowledge community and access to knowledge and culture….”
Background to the workshop
At the start of April 2022, Creative Commons released a policy paper called “Towards Better Sharing of Cultural Heritage — An Agenda for Copyright Reform” developed by members of the Creative Commons (CC) Copyright Platform and CC friends from around the world, which addresses the key high-level policy issues affecting access and sharing of cultural heritage, notably by galleries, libraries, archives and museums (GLAMs).
This paper calls for policies that support better sharing of cultural heritage in the public interest. And that’s exactly what we are planning to do. We are developing our first ever CC Open Culture Guide for Policymakers to address the copyright barriers to universal access and reuse of knowledge and culture faced by GLAMs. To initiate this process, we held an interactive virtual workshop for policy experts and open culture enthusiasts to explore key policy issues and gather insights into how to effectively engage policy makers in our work.
CC hosted a workshop on 10 May 2022, “Towards Better Sharing of Cultural Heritage,” which sought to bring together folks from the worlds of open culture and policy. The workshop started with a welcome address from Creative Commons CEO Catherine Stihler, followed by a brief overview of the main policy issues affecting better sharing of cultural heritage.
Our four panelists took to the stage to share their insights into ways to develop impactful and effective guidance to reshape policy. We were joined by:
- Brigitte Vézina | Director of Policy and Open Culture at Creative Commons (Moderator)
- Ramon Lugo, Legislative advisor, Senate of the Republic of Mexico
- Maria Drabczyk, Head of Policy and Advocacy & Board Member, Centrum Cyfrowe
- Mark Foster, Owner and Managing Director, Strategic Advisory Management
- Shantal English | Copyright and Related Rights Manager, Jamaica Intellectual Property Office
Check out this Twitter thread with top tips from our panel
1/ A of tips from our panel at CC’s ‘Towards Better Sharing of Cultural Heritage’ workshop. #OpenCulture
— Creative Commons (@creativecommons) May 10, 2022
After hearing from our panel of policy experts, we moved to the interactive part of the workshop. Attendees were divided into four breakout groups to co-create an initial roadmap for developing a guide for policymakers to support the public interest goals and mission of global cultural heritage institutions and their users. Please note that recordings are not available for the breakout sessions.
Our four breakout sessions were:
- Open Culture in an Ideal World: Needs, goals and aspirations of the open culture movement | Led by Camille Francoise
- Open Culture in our Current World: Problems, hurdles and challenges | Led by Shanna Hollich
- Bridging the Gap between Current and Ideal: Exploring solutions: exceptions and limitations and safeguarding the public domain | Led by Maarten Zeinstra
- New horizons: artificial intelligence, copyright and cultural heritage | Led by Emine Ozge Yildirim
The event probed several innovative and inspiring strategies for CC advocates to convey complex policy messages in simple and engaging ways. It also helped define our policy vision for better sharing of cultural heritage, according to the four horizons that shape it: (1) the challenging present; (2) the path forward; (3) the ideal future; and (4) the final frontier. Our learnings will feed into our guide development process, which will involve many opportunities to deepen the conversations and strengthen collaboration among experts in our dynamic global community.
We can’t develop this guide without your help—join us and get involved in developing a stable foundation for policy makers to further access to information, knowledge and culture. Join the CC Copyright Platform Mailing List >>
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“This paper is intended to act as a pillar and reference point for CC’s advocacy work in copyright reform in the cultural heritage context, with a focus on issues arising in the digital environment. It may serve to support members of the CC community in their own advocacy efforts, guide policymakers in their legislative processes, and inform anyone interested in the policy issues gravitating around access and reuse of culture and cultural heritage. It will likely be adapted into a GLAM Guide for Policymakers and will be augmented with real-life examples, case studies and practical advice. It starts with an overview of copyright challenges to the legitimate activities of GLAMs, notably preservation (largely through digitization) and sharing of digital and digitized content images and data for access, use and reuse. It also notes copyright’s chilling effects in the face of the GLAM sector’s general risk aversion. The paper then offers insights towards effective copyright reform addressing those challenges, with a focus on the opportunities related to the digital environment. The proposals for reform aim to create legal certainty and international harmonization as well as to facilitate cross-border transactions. The paper encourages policymakers to recognize and support the pivotal roles of GLAMs in preserving and providing access to knowledge and culture to all members of society. It urges policymakers to engage with stakeholders to ensure there are clear, simple, and effective policies in place to support better sharing of cultural heritage in the public interest. The paper provides a high-level overview of the policy issues and, as a whole, it does not necessarily reflect the current situation in any specific jurisdiction.”
“On Friday 25 February the Creative Commons Australia Chapter (CC Australia) made a submission to the Australian Government Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Communications in response to their consultation on the exposure draft of the Copyright Amendment (Access Reform) Bill 2021 and a review of the technological protection measures (TPMs) exceptions in the Copyright Regulations 2017….
In the submission, CC Australia expresses its support for the proposed reforms as they harmonise with CC’s vision and mission. There are strong public interest arguments to support activating orphan works and supporting equitable access to cultural collections (and it aligns with CC’s Open GLAM Program). Permitting quotation of copyright material in a range of noncommercial scenarios will help make research available to the research community and the public quicker. And further facilitating online education and encouraging flexibility in the delivery of government services are both worthwhile endeavours….”