Abstract: By analyzing 25,671 journals largely absent from common journal counts, as well as Web of Science and Scopus, this study demonstrates that scholarly communication is more of a global endeavor than is commonly credited. These journals, employing the open-source publishing platform Open Journal Systems (OJS), have published 5.8 million items; they are in 136 countries, with 79.9% in the Global South and 84.2% following the OA diamond model (charging neither reader nor author). A substantial proportion of journals operate in more than one language (48.3%), with research published in 60 languages (led by English, Indonesian, Spanish, and Portuguese). The journals are distributed across the social sciences (45.9%), STEM (40.3%), and the humanities (13.8%). For all their geographic, linguistic, and disciplinary diversity, 1.2% are indexed in the Web of Science and 5.7% in Scopus. On the other hand, 1.0% are found in Cabell’s Predatory Reports, and 1.4% show up in Beall’s (2021) questionable list. This paper seeks to both contribute to and historically situate the expanded scale and diversity of scholarly publishing in the hope that this recognition may assist humankind in taking full advantage of what is increasingly a global research enterprise.
“Peer Review is an experiment in scholarly publishing currently in Beta. It is a platform that enables crowdsourced peer review and public dissemination of scientific and academic papers. For now, the platform can only handle pre-prints. It is and will remain open source and diamond open access. It is currently being maintained by a single developer as a side project.
Peer Review uses a reputation system to ensure that review and refereeing is done by qualified peers. Reputation is primarily gained from publishing, but can also be gained from giving constructive reviews. Review is separated into pre-publish “review” and post-publish “refereeing”. Review is entirely focused on giving authors constructive, supportive feedback. Refereeing is intended to help maintain the integrity of the overall literature by identifying spam, malpractice, and misinformation. To learn more, please read how it works.”
“We invited a number of (lead) editors to tell us about their journals and the reasons why they chose to work with Openjournals.nl. Sible Andringa, editor-in-chief of the Dutch Journal of Applied Linguistics, kicks off. He feels that the journal has become more attractive to authors since switching to Openjournals and he explains why his editors quit working with a traditional publisher.
Sible Andringa: ‘The journal Dutch Journal of Applied Linguistics (DuJAL) has been around for a long time. It started as the Journal of Applied Linguistics in Articles. The first volume was published in-house in 1976. From the beginning, the journal was published by the Dutch Association of Applied Linguistics Anéla (see www.anela.nl). In 2012, it was decided to change its name. The journal was renamed Dutch Journal of Applied Linguistics and it has since been published by John Benjamins. In January 2021, the journal moved to Openjournals….
With Openjournals, you can choose to offer all that together: pre- and post-prints are not necessary, and all data and instruments can be co-published. The ideal model, if you ask me. We can now also think about all kinds of new forms of publishing, such as publishing conference posters and the like. Those conversations we can now have, because we know it is possible and allowed by the publisher. We find that we have become more attractive to authors now that we are open access and publish on an ongoing basis. There are not huge numbers of submissions right away, but a steady stream of good quality.”
As part of our work at COPIM, we speak to a lot of librarians. Many are personally convinced of the need to support collective funding models for open access (OA) books because these serve as equitable alternatives to the Book Processing Charge model,[undefined] but many librarians find themselves in the position of needing to convince their management team or budget holders to invest in Open Access initiatives.
For librarians who find themselves in this position, we have compiled a list of resources and arguments to help inform decisions to invest in OA monograph initiatives. This will be a two part blog post: in the first we’ll give some background by laying out the problems with Book Processing Charges (BPCs) and disentangling the various alternative models; in Part Two we’ll go into more detail, with practical steps on how colleagues might convince their budget holders to invest in collective funding models.
So, why should a library or institution invest in collective funding for open access books?
This is the second part of a two-part blog post. Part One explores why your institution should support collective funding for open access books. This second post highlights practical steps you can take to build a case to management for supporting collective OA book funding.
“Academics based in 70 low- and middle-income countries, including those in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, will be able to have their primary research published Gold Open Access by Nature – at no cost – thus enabling their scientific work to be permanently and freely available online for anyone to read.
Academics in the regions that are set to benefit from the announcement have welcomed the development, but some have also raised questions about the longer-term impact on the development of the publishing industries in low- and medium-income countries and diversity in the industry.
Springer Nature announced earlier in January that financial support, via a dedicated fund, has been made available to support authors from 70 countries classified by the World Bank as low-income or lower-middle-income to help them have their research published open access in Nature and the Nature-branded journals….
These high article processing fees for Gold Open Access publishing systemically exclude the participation of scholars from developing countries, said Dr Edmond Sanganyado, assistant professor in environmental forensics at Northumbria University, United Kingdom, and a committee member of Global Young Academy….”
From March to September 2022, the «Platinum Open Access Funding» Project (PLATO), in collaboration with the Institute for Applied Data Science & Finance at the Bern University of Applied Sciences, undertook a bibliometric and empirical study of the Platinum/Diamond open access journal landscape in Switzerland. The PLATO project is an initiative of six Swiss universities – the University of Zurich, the University of Bern, the University of Geneva, the University of Neuchâtel, the Zurich University of the Arts and ETH Zurich –, dedicated to furthering community-led scholarly publishing in Switzerland. Diamond open access stands for a concept of equitable open access to and participation in scholarly publishing that is free for both authors and readers.
The main objective of the PLATO Study was to gain insight into the Platinum/Diamond open access publishing ecosystem in Switzerland through a mixed-method approach. The study consisted of three parts: First, bibliometric data were combined with inputs from Swiss open access publishers, institutional open access experts as well as information on journal websites to identify Swiss Diamond Open Access journals and their main characteristics. Second, seven semi-structured interviews with editors of select Diamond Open Access journals were conducted to generate a thorough understanding of their workflows, infrastructures, business models, challenges and opportunities. Third, based on the inputs from the interviews, three surveys were designed and sent to authors/reviewers, editors, and representatives of hosting and funding institutions of Swiss Diamond OA journals.”
“The Public Library of Science (PLOS) is pleased to announce a consortium agreement with Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB) that allows member institutions to participate in PLOS’ three innovative publishing models. This two-year agreement provides researchers affiliated with consortium members with unlimited publishing privileges in PLOS journals without them having to cover fees themselves. The TIB-led consortium has more than 40 members…
All PLOS journals are underpinned by institutional business models that move beyond APCs to ensure more equitable and regionally appropriate ways to support Open Access publishing. PLOS’ institutional models are Community Action Publishing (CAP), Flat Fees , and the Global Equity model….”
In this episode, we are discussing the project Developing Institutional Open Access Publishing Models to Advance Scholarly Communication, in short: DIAMAS. At the heart of the project is support for Diamond Open Access, i.e. free for the reader as well as the author (no publishing charges). Co-lead of DIAMAS, Pierre Mounier explains the importance of lending support to not-for-profit institutional publishing. Besides the diversity offered by such scholar-led, high quality publication outlets, the multilingualism that they represent is key when the dissemination of knowledge and the promotion of citizen science across Europe is taken into account. The Helsinki Initiative on Multilingualism in Scholarly Publishing lends verbal support to linguistically diverse scholarly outputs; the EU-funded DIAMAS Project paves the way for stronger and more sustainable infrastructures facilitating them.
Since its inception in September 2022, the project will last for 3 years. An ultimate goal of DIAMAS is to help the providers of publishing services raise the quality and visibility of diamond open access by establishing a Europe-wide capacity center. A sister project, CRAFT-OA, focusing on the purely technical aspects of institutional diamond open access publishing begins in January 2023. The preliminary Diamond OA Journals Study (published March 2021), the first ever global survey of diamond open access journals, serves as foundation for both projects.
The recording was made in conjunction with the Munin Conference on Scholarly Publishing in December 2022. First published online January 10, 2023.
OPERAS is a consortium partner of the EU project “Creating a Robust Accessible Federated Technology for Open Access”, short: CRAFT-OA, which started in January 2023. The project with a total of 23 partners in 14 European countries is funded by the European Commission for three years with 4.8 million euros. The project is led by the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen / Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen (SUB Göttingen).
CRAFT-OA aims to strengthen and further develop institutional publishing in the Diamond Open Access model throughout Europe. The Diamond Open Access model means that researchers do not have to pay for the publication of scientific publications and readers do not have to pay for access to them. The special feature of CRAFT-OA is its focus on journal publishing. For this purpose, services and tools are to be developed that will enable local and regional platforms and service providers to expand their content, services and also platforms and thus achieve stronger networking with other information systems in science. For scientists in the institutional Diamond Open Access area, this means easier work.
OPERAS ist Konsortiumspartner des im Januar 2023 gestarteten EU-Projekts „Creating a Robust Accessible Federated Technology for Open Access“, kurz: CRAFT-OA. Das Projekt mit insgesamt 23 Partnern in 14 europäischen Ländern wird von der Europäischen Kommission drei Jahre lang mit 4,8 Millionen Euro gefördert. Die Leitung liegt bei der Georg-August-Universität Göttingen / Niedersächsischen Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen (SUB Göttingen).
CRAFT-OA hat das Ziel, europaweit das institutionelle Publikationswesen im Diamond Open Access-Modell zu stärken und weiterzuentwickeln. Unter dem Diamond Open Access-Modell versteht man, dass sowohl die Forschenden für die Veröffentlichung von als auch die Lesenden für den Zugriff auf wissenschaftliche Publikationen keine Gebühren zahlen müssen. Das Besondere an CRAFT-OA ist hierbei die Spezialisierung auf das Journalpublizieren. Hierfür sollen Services und Werkzeuge entwickelt werden, die es lokalen und regionalen Plattformen und Serviceanbietern ermöglichen, ihre Inhalte, Services und auch Plattformen zu erweitern und somit eine stärkere Vernetzung mit anderen Informationssystemen in der Wissenschaft zu erreichen. Für Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler im institutionellen Diamond Open Access-Bereich bedeutet dies ein erleichtertes Arbeiten.
“As Sharla Lair at LYRASIS says “The transformation of scholarly publishing happens one investment at a time. You can’t do everything, but you can do something.” In the UK, several libraries (including the Universities of St Andrews, Manchester, Sussex, and Salford, among others) are all implementing innovative strategies to enable ethically-aligned support for OA that mesh with budget constraints. The university KU Leuven has an approach worth studying (more on this below), as does that of Utrecht, Iowa State University, the University of Kansas, Guelph, Temple University, University of California and MIT Library. But even libraries that are not in a position to make strategic overhauls can still agree criteria by which they can start to assess deals.
Practical approaches – a case study from the library at KU Leuven…
“From January 2023, the University of Coimbra will be involved in another Open Science project: the CRAFT-OA project (“Creating a Robust Accessible Federated Technology for Open Access”) involves 23 partners in 14 European countries and will last for 36 months. The project is funded under the Horizon Europe framework programme, aiming to evolve and strengthen the institutional publishing landscape of Diamond Open Access (Diamond OA): no fees for authors or readers.
By offering tangible services and tools for the entire journal publishing lifecycle, CRAFT-OA will empower local and regional platforms and service providers to extend, professionalise and achieve greater interoperability with other scientific information systems for content and platforms. These developments will help researchers and publishers involved in publishing.
The project focuses on four action strands to improve the Diamond OA model:
(1) Providing technical improvements for journal platforms and journal software.
(2) Building communities of practice to promote overall infrastructure improvement
(3) Increase the visibility, discoverability and recognition of Diamond OA publishing
(4) Integrate Diamond OA publishing with the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC) and other large-scale data aggregators….”
“Meta-Psychology publishes theoretical and empirical contributions that advance psychology as a science through critical discourse related to individual articles, research lines, research areas, or psychological science as a field. Important contributions include systematic reviews, meta-analyses, replicability reports, and replication studies. We encourage pre-registered studies and registered reports (i.e., peer-review on the basis of theory, methods, and planned data-analysis, before data has been collected). Manuscripts introducing novel methods are welcome, but also tutorials on established methods that are still poorly understood by psychology researchers. We further welcome papers introducing statistical packages or other software useful for psychology researchers….”
“In Diamond Open Access, there are no fees for publishing or accessing scientific publications, whether you are reading or publishing. The University of Göttingen will lead an EU project with 23 partners in 14 European countries from January 2023. The aim is to strengthen and develop institutional publishing using the Diamond Open Access model across Europe. The European Commission has funded the project “Creating a Robust Accessible Federated Technology for Open Access (CRAFT-OA)” for three years, awarding a total of 4.8 million euros.”
From today, primary research from authors from over 70 countries classified by the World Bank as low-income (LIC) or lower-middle-income economies (LMICs) accepted for publication in either Nature or one of the Nature research journals (e.g. Nature Chemistry, Nature Sustainability) can now be published Gold open access at no cost. This move recognises that local funding is rarely available for publishing OA in specialist journals like Nature, whose characteristics such as in-house editorial teams and low acceptance rates make it difficult for authors from these countries who are less well-funded.