Modelling Overlay Peer Review Processes with Linked Data Notifications

In November 2017, the Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR) published a report outlining the technologies and behaviours of the Next Generation Repository (NGR). In the report, the NGR Working Group argues that repositories must take their place in a resource-centric network, where the individual resources (metadata and actual content) within the repositories are interconnected on the Web both with each other and, more importantly with resource-oriented networked services. These links between resources and overlay services can bring many new opportunities for broadening the scope of the services offered by repositories and 3rd party initiatives. The emphasis on moving to a fully resource-centric paradigm presented in the vision for the Next Generation Repository offers an opportunity to exploit what programmers call “pass by reference” – a notion which underlies the fundamental function of the Web.

One specific use case related to this vision is the linking of repository resources with services providing commentary, annotation and peer reviews; a use case that is currently being considered by several different initiatives in the scholarly communications landscape. The wide distribution of resources (typified by articles) in repositories, coupled with the growing interest in overlay journals, introduces the possibility of adopting an asynchronous notification paradigm to achieve interoperability between repositories and peer review systems….”

Introduction to Democratic Openbook Humanism and LODLIBs | Zenodo

“Hypothesis 1. If we humans create and share LODLIBs for free with the world, those books will make us free individually.


Hypothesis 2. If we humans connect our LODLIBs with each other’s LODLIBs, that will make us free socially.


Hypothesis 3. If we humans demand that enslaved digital books become LODLIBs, too, then that will make the whole world and almost all of its knowledge free.


Put all three into practice, and the vast majority of scientific and cultural knowledge can truly become universal, which is exactly what it should be. That’s one of the foundational principles of librarianship….


A LODLIB is a Linked Open Data Living Informational Book….”

Library’s linked-data project gets new grant | Cornell Chronicle

“A $2.5 million grant from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation is boosting a multi-institution initiative to develop tools and workflows that improve the sharing of catalog data among libraries and help internet users discover library resources on the web.

Known as Linked Data for Production, the project is part of a long-term collaboration among Cornell University Library, Stanford Libraries and the School of Library and Information Science at the University of Iowa.

Through linked data, information about books and other items in library records will be enhanced by related information from external online sources….”

Library’s linked-data project gets new grant | Cornell Chronicle

“A $2.5 million grant from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation is boosting a multi-institution initiative to develop tools and workflows that improve the sharing of catalog data among libraries and help internet users discover library resources on the web.

Known as Linked Data for Production, the project is part of a long-term collaboration among Cornell University Library, Stanford Libraries and the School of Library and Information Science at the University of Iowa.

Through linked data, information about books and other items in library records will be enhanced by related information from external online sources….”

LINCS – Linked Infrastructure for Networked Cultural Scholarship

“Human brains work through a vast web of interconnections, but the web that researchers increasingly use to understand human culture and history has few meaningful links. Linked Infrastructure for Networked Cultural Scholarship (LINCS) will create the conditions to think differently, with machines, about human culture in Canada….

The LINCS infrastructure project will convert large datasets into an organized, interconnected, machine-processable set of resources for Canadian cultural research….

LINCS aims to provide context for the cultural material that currently floats around online, interlink it, ground it in its sources, and help to make the World Wide Web a trusted resource for scholarly knowledge production….

With a team of technical and domain experts, LINCS will allow Canadian scholars and partner institutions to play a significant role in the developing the Semantic Web.”


“In the face of a global health contingency, the vital role of Open Access is endorsed: to bring knowledge to all corners of the world, to allow science to be quickly and timely accessible so that its contribution is reflected in the improvement of the quality of human life , in saving lives and in the development of a better society for all. Open Access initiatives such as Redalyc have been working towards this goal for 18 years. Today, the AmeliCA/Redalyc alliance reaffirms its commitment to Open Access and continues to develop technology which it is now applied to the semantic dissemination of articles published on topics of interest in epidemiology, pandemics and related topics. This development enable to publish more than 6 thousand articles in Linked Open Data (LOD) format so that they can be processed and interconnected in the LOD knowledge cloud and allow users to browse content and access to full-texts in a thematic discovery service….”

AmeliCA/Redalyc1 run an ontology-based algorithm, previously developed called OntoOAI (Becerril-Garci?a & Aguado-Lopez, 2018), on their databases to extract epidemics-related content. The results include: an ontology representation of the knowledge published in 6,557 scientific articles including concepts and relations, as well as their attributes, a directed-graph thematic content browser to access to full-texts and a dataset available at SPARQL endpoint to query the results as part of Linked Open Data….”



PHAROS: A digital research space for photo archives | Art Libraries Journal | Cambridge Core

Abstract:  The PHAROS consortium of fourteen international art historical photo archives is digitizing the over 20 million images (with accompanying documentation) in its combined collections and has begun to construct a common access platform using Linked Open Data and the ResearchSpace software. In addition to resulting in a rich and substantial database of images for art-historical research, the PHAROS initiative supports the development of shared standards for mapping and sharing photo archive metadata, as well as for best practices for working with large digital image collections and conducting computational image analysis. Moreover, alongside their digitization efforts, PHAROS member institutions are considering the kinds of art-historical questions the resulting database of images could be used to research. This article indicates some of the prospective research directions stimulated by modern technologies, with the aim of exploring the epistemological potential of photographic archives and challenging the boundaries between the analogue and the digital.


Linked Research on the Decentralised Web

Abstract:  This thesis is about research communication in the context of the Web. I analyse literature which reveals how researchers are making use of Web technologies for knowledge dissemination, as well as how individuals are disempowered by the centralisation of certain systems, such as academic publishing platforms and social media. I share my findings on the feasibility of a decentralised and interoperable information space where researchers can control their identifiers whilst fulfilling the core functions of scientific communication: registration, awareness, certification, and archiving.

The contemporary research communication paradigm operates under a diverse set of sociotechnical constraints, which influence how units of research information and personal data are created and exchanged. Economic forces and non-interoperable system designs mean that researcher identifiers and research contributions are largely shaped and controlled by third-party entities; participation requires the use of proprietary systems.

From a technical standpoint, this thesis takes a deep look at semantic structure of research artifacts, and how they can be stored, linked and shared in a way that is controlled by individual researchers, or delegated to trusted parties. Further, I find that the ecosystem was lacking a technical Web standard able to fulfill the awareness function of research communication. Thus, I contribute a new communication protocol, Linked Data Notifications (published as a W3C Recommendation) which enables decentralised notifications on the Web, and provide implementations pertinent to the academic publishing use case. So far we have seen decentralised notifications applied in research dissemination or collaboration scenarios, as well as for archival activities and scientific experiments.

Another core contribution of this work is a Web standards-based implementation of a clientside tool, dokieli, for decentralised article publishing, annotations and social interactions. dokieli can be used to fulfill the scholarly functions of registration, awareness, certification, and archiving, all in a decentralised manner, returning control of research contributions and discourse to individual researchers.

The overarching conclusion of the thesis is that Web technologies can be used to create a fully functioning ecosystem for research communication. Using the framework of Web architecture, and loosely coupling the four functions, an accessible and inclusive ecosystem can be realised whereby users are able to use and switch between interoperable applications without interfering with existing data.

Technical solutions alone do not suffice of course, so this thesis also takes into account the need for a change in the traditional mode of thinking amongst scholars, and presents the Linked Research initiative as an ongoing effort toward researcher autonomy in a social system, and universal access to human- and machine-readable information?. Outcomes of this outreach work so far include an increase in the number of individuals self-hosting their research artifacts, workshops publishing accessible proceedings on the Web, in-the-wild experiments with open and public peer-review, and semantic graphs of contributions to conference proceedings and journals (the Linked Open Research Cloud).

Some of the future challenges include: addressing the social implications of decentralised Web publishing, as well as the design of ethically grounded interoperable mechanisms; cultivating privacy aware information spaces; personal or community-controlled on-demand archiving services; and further design of decentralised applications that are aware of the core functions of scientific communication.

Exploring Canadiana: A Use Case for Wikidata – Hanging Together

“My colleagues Jean Godby, Karen Smith-Yoshimura, and Bruce Washburn, along with a host of partners, have just released Creating Library Linked Data with Wikibase: Lessons Learned from Project Passage, a fascinating account of their experiences working with a customized instance of Wikibase to create resource descriptions in the form of linked data. In the spirit of their report, I’d like to offer a modest yet illustrative use case showing how access to the relationships and properties of the linked data in another Wikibase environment – Wikidata – smoothed the way for OCLC Research’s recent study of the Canadian presence in the published record.

Maple Leaves: Discovering Canada Through the Published Record is the latest in a series of OCLC Research studies that explore national contributions to the world’s accumulated body of published materials. A national contribution is defined as materials published in, about, and/or by the people of that country. The last category presents a special challenge: how to assemble a list of entities – people and organizations – associated with a particular country from which authors, musicians, film makers, and other creators of published works can be identified?…”

Wikidata:From “an” Identifier to “the” Identifier

Abstract:  Library catalogues may be connected to the linked data cloud through various types of thesauri. For name authority thesauri in particular I would like to suggest a fundamental break with the current distributed linked data paradigm: to make a transition from a multitude of different identifiers to using a single, universal identifier for all relevant named entities, in the form of the Wikidata identifier. Wikidata ( seems to be evolving into a major authority hub that is lowering barriers to access the web of data for everyone. Using the Wikidata identifier of notable entities as a common identifier for connecting resources has significant benefits compared to traversing the ever-growing linked data cloud. When the use of Wikidata reaches a critical mass, for some institutions, Wikidata could even serve as an authority control mechanism.

Robustifying Scholia: paving the way for knowledge discovery and research assessment through Wikidata

Abstract:  Knowledge workers like researchers, students, journalists, research evaluators or funders need tools to explore what is known, how it was discovered, who made which contributions, and where the scholarly record has gaps. Existing tools and services of this kind are not available as Linked Open Data, but Wikidata is. It has the technology, active contributor base, and content to build a large-scale knowledge graph for scholarship, also known as WikiCite. Scholia visualizes this graph in an exploratory interface with profiles and links to the literature. However, it is just a working prototype. This project aims to “robustify Scholia” with back-end development and testing based on pilot corpora. The main objective at this stage is to attain stability in challenging cases such as server throttling and handling of large or incomplete datasets. Further goals include integrating Scholia with data curation and manuscript writing workflows, serving more languages, generating usage stats, and documentation.