By letter to University of California President Janet Napolitano, the Academic Council has enthusiastically endorsed and affirmed university-wide commitments to make UC research and scholarship as freely and openly available as possible.
The letter of the Academic Council, which advises the UC President on behalf of the Assembly, updates President Napolitano on various campus efforts to fulfill the University’s mission of providing long-term societal benefits through transmitting advanced knowledge. As the Council notes, one way that the University has been working to achieve its mission is through implementation of the 2013 Open Access policy, pursuant to which UC scholars widely disseminate their scholarship by making copies available open access (OA). OA promotes free, immediate access to research articles and the rights to use these articles to advance knowledge worldwide.
“On February 14, 2002, a small text of fewer than a thousand words quietly appeared on the Web: titled the “Budapest Open Access Initiative” (BOAI), it gave a public face to discussions between sixteen participants that had taken place on December 1 and 2, 2001 in Budapest, at the invitation of the Open Society Foundations (then known as the Open Society Institute)….Wedding the old – the scientific ethos – with the new – computers and the Internet – elicited a powerful, historically grounded synthesis that gave gravitas to the BOAI. In effect, the Budapest Initiative stated, Open Access was not the hastily cobbled up conceit of a small, marginal band of scholars and scientists dissatisfied with their communication system; instead, it asserted anew the central position of communication as the foundation of the scientific enterprise. Communication, as William D. Harvey famously posited, is the “essence of science,” and thanks to the Internet, scientific communication could be further conceived as the distributed system of human intelligence….”
:This OA2020 roadmap, prepared in principle by the Max Planck Digital Library, is incorporated by reference in the OA2020 Expression of Interest (EoI), but is not binding on EoI signatories. Rather, this roadmap is intended to offer potential frameworks or guidelines for practical steps that can be taken to prepare for the envisaged open access transformation. As the EoI acknowledges, the large-scale transition to Open Access is intended to reflect community-specific publication preferences. While the roadmap will endeavor to encompass a broad range of approaches being adopted by various stakeholder communities as they are developed, the specific undertakings by any particular institution working toward OA2020 may not necessarily align with or conform to the roadmap’s suggestions. Entities that have signed the EoI may develop their own roadmaps reflective of institutional or community needs.
This roadmap is also designed as a living document. At the moment it focuses on the ‘activation phase’ in which some initial steps towards the OA2020 transformation are described; it will evolve as momentum develops. Max Planck Digital Library intends to solicit OA2020 community input to the roadmap on an ongoing basis. For reasons explained below, this document addresses mainly the library level within the structural organization of a research institution….”
“4 -Openarchives Pre-publication reviewing is important to control the quality of articles. However, open archives and preprint repositories also have a valuable role in allowing the rapid dissemination of scientific work and encouraging large scale, post-publication peer review by the entire community. To minimize delays in the dissemination of scientific work, articles should be deposited in open access repositories (also known as preprint servers). There are a number of established systems, including arXiv (for the physical sciences and mathematics) and bioRxiv (for the biological sciences). Such a deposit should not be considered a hindrance to the acceptance of an article by a journal and journals should make their policies clear on this matter. Significant effort should be made to improve the visibility of articles that have been deposited in open archives and which until now have not been taken into account by the main alerting services (for example Web of Science, Pubmed and Scopus).
5 -OpenAccess We support the principles of open access and would like to see all published scientific work freely available under fully open licenses as soon as possible at sustainable publication costs for the scientific community. We support both “green” and “gold” routes to open access and believe that the funds currently spent on journal subscriptions should be re-directed to fund publication charges. Ultimately, we believe that the “gold” open access publication route is likely to be the most sustainable option for open access journals, but that the payment of an article processing charge must be clearly separated from the editorial decision. We would like to see science publishing move away from large corporate interests and a stronger involvement of academies and learned societies in order that any surplus funds may be used for the benefit of science. At the same time, authors should always retain their intellectual property rights….”
“As long as there has been open access (OA), there has been talk of a global “flip” of research journals away from the subscription business model. The difficulties in coordinating an enormous number of stakeholders with different interests have continued to make this unlikely. However, a recent paper from the Max Planck Digital Library claiming that, “An internationally concerted shifting of subscription budgets is possible at no financial risk, maybe even at lower overall costs,” has once again fueled talk of a flip. Has this paper discovered a golden ticket to global OA sustainability, or is it based on flawed assumptions?…”
“I spoke with the UC study’s co-principal investigators, MacKenzie Smith and Ivy Anderson, about the findings of their study and how these fit into wider prospects and challenges for accelerated moves towards OA.”
“This roadmap complements the Expression of Interest; it is intended to offer guidelines for some practical steps that can be taken to prepare for the envisaged open access transformation. For reasons explained below, this document addresses mainly the library level within the structural organization of a research institution.
This roadmap is designed as a living document. At the moment it focuses on the ‘activation phase’ in which the initial steps towards the OA2020 transformation are described; it will evolve as momentum develops. Currently, the roadmap covers mainly the period between the Berlin 12 conference and the next meeting, which will most likely be convened in Q1/2017….”
“Open Access 2020 is an international initiative that aims to induce the swift, smooth and scholarly-oriented transformation of today’s scholarly journals from subscription to open access publishing.
The principles of this initiative were discussed and agreed upon at the Berlin 12 Conference on 8-9 December 2015 and are embodied in an Expression of Interest, which has already been endorsed by numerous international scholarly organizations.
The practical steps that can be taken towards the envisaged transformation are outlined in a Roadmap.
All parties involved in scholarly publishing – particularly universities, research institutions, funders, libraries, and publishers – are invited to collaborate through OA2020 for a swift and efficient transition of scholarly publishing to open access.
This important initiative is open to further institutional signatories. Please consider offering your support….”
“We recognize and endorse various ways of implementing open access (OA), including the development of new OA publishing platforms, archives and repositories. In scholarly journal publishing, OA has gained a substantial and increasing volume. Most journals, however, are still based on the subscription business model with its inherent deficiencies in terms of access, cost-efficiency, transparency, and restrictions of use.
To gain the full benefits of OA and enable a smooth, swift and scholarly oriented transition, the existing corpus of scholarly journals should be converted from subscription to open access. Recent developments and studies indicate that this transition process can be realized within the framework of currently available resources.
With this statement, we express our interest in establishing an international initiative for the OA transformation of scholarly journals, and we agree upon the following key aspects:….
- We aim to transform a majority of today’s scholarly journals from subscription to OA publishing in accordance with community-specific publication preferences. At the same time, we continue to support new and improved forms of OA publishing.
- We will pursue this transformation process by converting resources currently spent on journal subscriptions into funds to support sustainable OA business models. Accordingly, we intend to re-organize the underlying cash flows, to establish transparency with regard to costs and potential savings, and to adopt mechanisms to avoid undue publication barriers.
- We invite all parties involved in scholarly publishing, in particular universities, research institutions, funders, libraries, and publishers to collaborate on a swift and efficient transition for the benefit of scholarship and society at large….”
“A growing number of research organizations want to establish an international initiative which aims to convert the majority of today’s scholarly journals from subscription to Open Access (OA) publishing. This is the result of the 12th Berlin Open Access Conference hosted by the Max Planck Society in December 2015. An Expression of Interest, published today and already adopted by thirty signatories, invites all parties involved in scholarly publishing to collaborate on a swift and efficient transition for the benefit of scholarship and society at large….The scholarly organizations share a common interest in “the large-scale implementation of free online access to, and largely unrestricted use and re-use of scholarly research articles“. According to the Expression of Interest (EoI), the aim is “to transform a majority of today’s scholarly journals from subscription to OA publishing”. This transition will be pursued by “converting resources currently spent on journal subscriptions into funds to support sustainable OA business models”. At the same time, the signatories agree “to continue to support new and improved forms of OA publishing”….”
“The 12th conference in the Berlin Open Access series will be an invitation-only workshop for high-level representatives of the world’s most eminent research organizations. Delegates will convene in Berlin to discuss how the goal of Open Access can be realized more rapidly. The central theme will be the transformation of subscription journals to Open Access, as outlined in a recent white paper by the Max Planck Digital Library (http://dx.doi.org/10.17617/1.3).”
With regard to Open Access to research publications, Science Europe Member Organisations share the view that:
• publication and dissemination of results are an integral part of the research process. The allocation of resources within the research system must take this into account;
• Open Access to the published results of publicly-funded research will have huge value for the research community and will offer signifi cant social and economic benefi ts to potential users in industry, charitable and public sectors, to individual professionals, and to the general public;
• Open Access, as defi ned in the Berlin Declaration, is not only about the right of access, but also about the opportunity to re-use information with as few restrictions as possible, subject to proper attribution;
• the common goal of Science Europe Members is to shift to a research publication system in which free access to research publications is guaranteed, and which avoids undue publication barriers. This involves a move towards Open Access, replacing the present subscription system with other publication models whilst redirecting and reorganising the current resources accordingly.
Science Europe is committed to playing a role in accomplishing the transition to Open Access as quickly as possible, in an effi cient and sustainable way, and thus avoiding unnecessary costs. This transition process must be as co-ordinated and transparent as possible.
Therefore the Science Europe Member Organisations:
• will continue to support any valid approaches to achieve Open Access, including those commonly referred to as the ‘green’ and ‘gold’ routes;
• recognise repositories and related facilities as key strategic research infrastructure which should comply with high quality standards;
• stress that research publications should either be published in an Open Access journal or be deposited as soon as possible in a repository, and made available in Open Access in all cases no later than six months following first publication. In Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, the delay may need to be longer than six months but must be no more than 12 months;
• require that as part of the publication services provided against the payment of Open Access publication fees, effective mechanisms are in place to ensure that the publication of research outputs is subject to rigorous quality assurance;
• will co-ordinate efforts to ensure the effi cient and cost effective use of public funds, and combine programmes for covering Open Access costs with budget control mechanisms and to build up monitoring systems for these costs;
• accept that it is essential that Open Access transactions need to be managed effi ciently, with the co-operation of all parties involved;
• require that funding of Open Access publication fees is part of a transparent cost structure, incorporating a clear picture of publishers’ service costs;
• expect publishers to apply institutional-, regional-, or country-based reductions in journal subscriptions, in line with increases in author- or institution-pays contributions;
• stress that the hybrid model, as currently defi ned and implemented by publishers, is not a working and viable pathway to Open Access. Any model for transition to Open Access supported by Science Europe Member Organisations must prevent ‘double dipping’ and increase cost transparency;
• recognise that some redirection and reorganisation of current budgets will be necessary. Governments should give due consideration to the fact that public funds for journal subscriptions often come from other ministries or institutions than those directly responsible for funding research; consequently, some rebalancing of budgets may be required….”