Abstract: While the idea of reference sources has become synonymous with the internet, online scholarly encyclopedias in music are currently only accessible to those affiliated with institutions that can afford expensive annual subscriptions and to those individuals who purchase costly personal subscriptions. Meanwhile, backup print copies have been inaccessible in libraries closed for the COVID-19 pandemic or closed to unaffiliated visitors. An open access scholarly music encyclopedia could solve these access problems while increasing the visibility and relevance of music scholarship and expanding the possible modes of digital analysis. This paper considers existing models of open access and identifies some potential paths forward for an open access scholarly subject encyclopedia, including leveraging Wikipedia, creating a new encyclopedia, or lobbying publishers to convert existing music encyclopedias to open access using a “subscribe to open” funding model.
“Published by the UCLA Music Library in eScholarship, the Contemporary Music Score Collection includes the digital, open access scores from the Contemporary Score Edition series, the first open access edition of new music published by a library, and scores from the Kaleidoscope 2020 Call for Scores, an open access collaboration with the UCLA Music Library. For more information about how to use or search the collection, see the Contemporary Music Score Collection Guide. …”
“The Music Encoding Initiative (MEI) is a 21st century community-driven open-source effort to define guidelines for encoding musical documents in a machine-readable structure.
It brings together specialists from various music research communities, including technologists, librarians, historians, and theorists in a common effort to discuss and define best practices for representing a broad range of musical documents and structures. The results of these discussions are then formalized into the MEI schema, a core set of rules for recording physical and intellectual characteristics of music notation documents expressed as an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schema. This schema is developed and maintained by the MEI Technical Team….”
“Two programmer-musicians wrote every possible MIDI melody in existence to a hard drive, copyrighted the whole thing, and then released it all to the public in an attempt to stop musicians from getting sued….”
“The Amra project, led by music historian Dr Ann Buckley at Trinity’s Medieval History Research Centre, is aiming to digitise and make freely available online over 300 manuscripts containing liturgical material associated with some 40 Irish saints which are located in research libraries across Europe….”
“Almost five years ago, we warned that years of copyright maximalists brainwashing the public about ever expansive copyright and the need for everything to be “owned” had resulted in the crazy Blurred Lines decision that said that merely being inspired by another artist to make a song that has a similar feel, even if it doesn’t copy any actual part of the music, was infringing. We warned that this would lead to bad things — and it has.
Over the last few years, we’ve been detailing story after story of similar cases being filed. It’s become so common that we don’t even bother to write about most of the cases. As we’ve said, though, this really is the industry reaping what they’ve sowed. It’s gotten so crazy that even the RIAA (yes, that RIAA) has felt the need to tell courts that maybe their interpretation of copyright has gone too far in the direction of over-protecting copyright holders.
It’s now become such a fact of life that the NY Times has a giant article on how copyright is basically eating pop music these days. …”
Abstract: The importance of open access (OA) advocacy is well-documented in the literature of academic librarianship, but previous research shows that librarians’ OA behaviors are less conclusive. This article compares the self-archiving practices of music librarians and musicologists to see how librarians rank in OA adoption. Availability of articles published from 2013 to 2017 in six green OA journals in music librarianship and musicology indicates a need for continued advocacy and enhanced understanding of OA policies and opportunities.
Abstract: Hip-Hop music, business, distribution, and culture exhibit highly-comparable trends in the scholarly communication and publication industry. This article discusses Hip-Hop artists and research authors as content creators, each operating within marketplaces still adjusting to digital, online connectivity. These discussions are intended for classroom use, where students may access their existing knowledge framework of popular media and apply it to a new understanding of the scholarly communication environment. Research instructors and librarians may discover new perspectives to familiar issues through conversations with students engaging with this material in a novel way.
“The Loeb Music Library digitizes scores and libretti selected for their rare or unique natures and their popularity as objects of research and teaching.
By providing online access to these items, the library makes primary source materials available for use at Harvard and around the world.
This digital collection includes manuscripts, first editions, and early editions of music from the 17th to the early 20th century. Many items, such as variant editions and annotated proofs of 19th-century operas and related libretti, are meant to be seen and used together. As a group, they give scholars a window into the study of historical performance practice….”
Abstract: This article uses Alan B. Krueger’s analysis of the music industry in his book Rockonomics: A Backstage Tour of What the Music Industry Can Teach Us About Economics and Life as a lens to consider the structure of scholarly publishing and what could happen to scholarly publishing going forward. Both the music industry and scholarly publishing are facing disruption as their products become digital. Digital content provides opportunities to a create a better product at lower prices and in the music industry this has happened. Scholarly publishing has not yet done so. Similarities and differences between the music industry and scholarly publishing will be considered. Like music, scholarly publishing appears to be a superstar industry. Both music and scholarly publishing are subject to piracy, which threatens revenue, though Napster was a greater disrupter than Sci-Hub seems to be. It also appears that for a variety of reasons market forces are not effective in driving changes in business models and practices in scholarly publishing, at least not at the rate we would expect given the changes in technology. After reviewing similarities and differences, the prospects for the future of scholarly publishing will be considered.
“At present it is estimated that across all scholarly and scientific disciplines, cOAlition S signatory funded research results in the production of <8% global published outputs and that wholesale changes within current business models are likely only once that funder base increases substantially. In the meantime, a mixture of models will need to continue to exist.
Nonetheless, the Royal Musical Association has recently taken active steps, through the re?negotiation of its contract to publish its journals to ensure that for research published in RMA journals from 2020 onwards authors will retain copyright, and outputs can either be made immediate OA (hybrid) or can be self? archived with a zero?month embargo.
As they stand, the Implementation Guidelines present issues which may render RMA outputs non?compliant with Plan S aims, reversing a trend with this learned society which seeks to support and enable OA for its publications. At worst we fear that this may result in the perpetuation of the subscription model – and limit funding available for exploring new publishing business models, particularly models which would support learned societies such as ours. They also risk alienating a scholarly community which is relatively new to OA and, for the RMA, is now actively engaging with OA. The suggestions below offer some proposals to address those issues and concerns….”
“When world famous cellist, Yo-Yo Ma, visited the NIH campus, he shared a story from the history of music, in which the peak of stringed instrument quality occurred in the late 17th century at a time of great collaboration and sharing of knowledge. When instrument makers began to compete, all of that changed: secrets of craftsmanship were held close and the quality of instruments plummeted. This decline lasted, according to Ma, until the 20th century, when again the free-flow of knowledge resumed. NIH Director Francis Collins noted, “There’s a lesson here about science.”
Data sharing is important. It is critical to continued progress in science, to maximize our investment in research, and to ensure the highest levels of transparency and rigor in science. But data sharing is a means to an end, not itself an end goal and, as such, needs to be done thoughtfully, in a way that fulfills the vision and mission of NIH and continues the advancement of treatments for disease and improvement of human health. NIH has long been on the forefront of making access to the results of our research accessible and has described our vision for expanding access to publications and data both in the 2015 NIH Plan for Increasing Access to Scientific Publications and Digital Scientific and in the 2018 Strategic Plan for Data Science….
Today, NIH released a notice in its Guide to Grants and Contracts that seeks public input on the key policy provisions that NIH is considering for inclusion in a future draft policy aimed at replacing NIH’s existing Data Sharing Policy. By obtaining robust stakeholder feedback we can help ensure that the future NIH policy will promote opportunities for data management and sharing while allowing flexibility for various data types, sharing platforms, and strategies. The information stakeholders provide can also assist us in developing streamlined approaches that could potentially reduce unnecessary administrative burdens….”
“Great improvements, said [Yo Yo] Ma, can come from collaboration. He said his cello was crafted in Cremona, Italy, at a time when apprenticeships were popular and the quality of instruments peaked, between 1695 and 1735. But then instrument makers around the world began competing for business and keeping secrets.
“There’s a lesson here about science, I think,” interjected Collins.
In the ensuing two centuries, Ma said, the quality of instruments plummeted. In the 1970s, however, apprenticeships resumed around the world; knowledge flowed and the quality of instruments dramatically improved….”
“A pilot project in the Music Library to digitize sheet music and make images available in the SearchWorks catalog has produced its first collection, made up of 140 piano arrangements and transcriptions. Basic records for these items have long been in SearchWorks, and are now greatly enhanced with access to the digital images and options for close examination and download. This collection was chosen for scanning because the paper is too brittle to withstand the handling that results from practice and performance. THe works are also in the public domain, making free, printable, digital files the ideal means of access and preservation….”
“S?awek Szefs reports that the free catalogue of some 40,000 items available in “The Chopin Heritage in Open Access” portal will at the same time help performers and music specialists in their studies related to Chopin’s artistic career and personal life.”