Abstract: Key points
OA business models must be sustainable over the long term, and article processing charge payments do not work for all; Subscribe to Open (S2O) is proposed, and being tested, as an alternative model.
The S2O model motivates subscribers to participate through economic self?interest, without reliance on institutional altruism or collective behaviour.
The S2O offer targets current subscribers, uses existing subscription systems, and recurs annually, allowing publishers to control risk and revert to conventional subscriptions if necessary.
An Annual Reviews pilot is currently testing the S2O model with five journals.